0000005783 00000 n 0000008766 00000 n 0000086546 00000 n In particular, technologies such as phase change memory and memristors are byte-addressablelike DRAM, persistent like disk and flash, and up to four orders of m ag- nitude faster than disk or flash for typical file system I/O. 0000009591 00000 n He said those attributes are: bit-alterable; non-volatile; fast read speed; fast write/erase speed; and good scalability. 0000016412 00000 n 0000011683 00000 n 0000088801 00000 n 0000009542 00000 n 0000009689 00000 n 0000008254 00000 n 0000030229 00000 n This article was originally published on March 12, 2010. 0000151999 00000 n 0000045761 00000 n 0000045599 00000 n 0000140269 00000 n 0000021904 00000 n Some industry insiders even believe PCM has the potential to accelerate the data storage market’s slow transition from hard disk drives (HDDs) to solid state drives (SSDs). After a short description of the PCM operation principle, the chapter will focus on electrical conduction characteristics for the amorphous and the crystalline phase of the chalcogenide material. That is why many are looking for alternatives. 0000154362 00000 n PCM exploits differ- ences in the electrical resistivity of a material in different phases. 0000123870 00000 n Abstract: In this tutorial, a short account on the working principles of Phase Change Memory and its development will be introduced, followed by a comprehensive comparison with incumbent and other emerging memory technologies. 0000042676 00000 n 0000034441 00000 n 0000039185 00000 n To configure a phase‐change device as an arithmetic computer, we tailor the input pulse amplitude and/or duration such that the SET state is reached from the RESET state not with a single pulse (as for normal binary memory operation) but with a pre‐determined number of pulses, thus providing a form of phase‐change accumulator. 0000029975 00000 n She is a frequent contributor to EcommerceGuide and managing editor at Webopedia. Phase change memory uses a special alloys, including Germanium Antimony Tellurium (GST), which have innovative characteristics that enable the non-volatile storage. 0000029292 00000 n 0000029132 00000 n 0000064681 00000 n x�bbRg`b``Ń3���0 |f� endstream endobj 209 0 obj <>/ViewerPreferences<>/Metadata 42 0 R/Pages 41 0 R/StructTreeRoot 44 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 210 0 obj <>/Shading<>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/Properties<>>>/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 211 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 26 320 0 R] endobj 212 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 23 322 0 R] endobj 213 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 10 324 0 R] endobj 214 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 2 326 0 R] endobj 215 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 3 328 0 R] endobj 216 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 11 330 0 R] endobj 217 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 22 332 0 R] endobj 218 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 19 334 0 R] endobj 219 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 18 336 0 R] endobj 220 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 19 338 0 R] endobj 221 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 17 340 0 R] endobj 222 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 17 342 0 R] endobj 223 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 10 344 0 R] endobj 224 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 6 346 0 R] endobj 225 0 obj [/Separation/Black/DeviceCMYK<>] endobj 226 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 7 371 0 R] endobj 227 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 32 373 0 R] endobj 228 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 34 375 0 R] endobj 229 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 37 377 0 R] endobj 230 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 35 379 0 R] endobj 231 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 31 381 0 R] endobj 232 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 9 383 0 R] endobj 233 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 8 385 0 R] endobj 234 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 8 387 0 R] endobj 235 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 73 348 0 R] endobj 236 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 28 350 0 R] endobj 237 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 111 305 0 R] endobj 238 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 108 304 0 R] endobj 239 0 obj [/DeviceN[/Black]/DeviceCMYK 303 0 R 301 0 R] endobj 240 0 obj <> endobj 241 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 17 389 0 R] endobj 242 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 12 352 0 R] endobj 243 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 7 354 0 R] endobj 244 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 3 356 0 R] endobj 245 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 1 358 0 R] endobj 246 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 4 361 0 R] endobj 247 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 55 363 0 R] endobj 248 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 48 365 0 R] endobj 249 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 19 367 0 R] endobj 250 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 90 369 0 R] endobj 251 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 77 391 0 R] endobj 252 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 38 393 0 R] endobj 253 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 14 395 0 R] endobj 254 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 13 397 0 R] endobj 255 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 30 399 0 R] endobj 256 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 36 401 0 R] endobj 257 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 14 403 0 R] endobj 258 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 81 405 0 R] endobj 259 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 2 407 0 R] endobj 260 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 78 409 0 R] endobj 261 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 85 308 0 R] endobj 262 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 79 310 0 R] endobj 263 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 72 312 0 R] endobj 264 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 31 314 0 R] endobj 265 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 80 316 0 R] endobj 266 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 52 318 0 R] endobj 267 0 obj <>stream o7l6p`2g����z�>C�� Abbreviated as PCM, phase change memory is a type of non-volatile memory that is much faster than the common flash memory, and it also uses up to one-half the power. 0000133675 00000 n 0000008666 00000 n 0000018716 00000 n 0000055142 00000 n 0000046871 00000 n 0000143498 00000 n Phase Change Memory (PCM) is a term used to describe a class of non-volatile memory devices that employ a reversible phase change in materials to store information. 0000052550 00000 n 0000149237 00000 n Abbreviated as PCM, phase change memory is a type of non-volatile memory that is much faster than the common flash memory, and it also uses up to one-half the power. INTRODUCTION Phase change memory (PCM) is an emerging technology 0000115386 00000 n 0000134302 00000 n 0000064084 00000 n 0000134388 00000 n Memory is expected to play a key role in this form of computing and, in particular, phase-change memory (PCM), arguably the most advanced emerging non-volatile memory technology. The cross-sectional area of those cells, however, still exceeds 400 nm 2. 0000007906 00000 n 0000007856 00000 n 0000020597 00000 n 0000029452 00000 n 0000019428 00000 n 0000009492 00000 n 0000008965 00000 n 0000120883 00000 n 0000015972 00000 n Invited Tutorial - Phase Change Memory: Replacement or Transformational. 0000064162 00000 n 0000127047 00000 n 0000009838 00000 n PCM records data by causing a phase-change material inside the memory device to switch from a crystalline (ordered) phase to an amorphous (disordered) phase and vice-versa. 0000009788 00000 n Scalability: Scaling is another area where PCM offers a difference. 0000084094 00000 n 0000008204 00000 n This emerging non-volatile technology pioneered by Intel, Numonyx, Samsung and others could turn out to be a low-cost, more reliable, faster, and just plain better alternative to flash memory. Flash memory technology requires a separate erase step in order to change information. 0000028972 00000 n 0000143047 00000 n 0000029745 00000 n 0000154107 00000 n 0000127189 00000 n 0000146439 00000 n 0000008004 00000 n 0000010038 00000 n Creating a desktop... Microsoft Windows is a family of operating systems. PRAMs exploit the unique behaviour of chalcogenide glass. 0000008304 00000 n Phase Change Memory offers a key advantage of NVRAM: unlike Dynamic Random-Access Memory(DRAM) which is another common type of system memory, NVRAM allows information to be retained when the system is powered off. These features, when combined with a no separate erase step (bit-alterable), will deliver significant write performance improvement over NOR and NAND flash. (Under Revision). early work disclosed many of the fundamental concepts of the phase change memory (PCM), it is only in the past 10–15 years that advances in materials and device tech-nology have made it possible to demonstrate PCMs that rival incumbent technologies such as Flash [4]. 0000009938 00000 n 0000138039 00000 n 0000010737 00000 n 0000008453 00000 n 0000024026 00000 n 0000132966 00000 n 0000153400 00000 n 0000018828 00000 n 0000010387 00000 n 0000132860 00000 n 0000010338 00000 n 0000008617 00000 n 0000010088 00000 n The self-consistency of the approach and its resulting simulation speed and robustness provide a useful TCAD tool for design studies of phase change memory devices. 0000013586 00000 n "xL� #� XP.��*�ij0��l)��`{ YDEN ���c ���+�? Read performance: Similar to RAM and NOR flash memory, PCM features fast random access times. 0000087180 00000 n 0000050204 00000 n 0000007806 00000 n 0000010637 00000 n 0000149837 00000 n 0000016266 00000 n 0000009640 00000 n 0000010138 00000 n 0000101528 00000 n 0000145810 00000 n Phase Change Memory: The Next Big Thing in Data Storage? 0000063027 00000 n 0000009014 00000 n 0000030486 00000 n In a heating or a cooling process, this phase change takes place as soon as the material reaches its specific phase change temperature. 0000009328 00000 n 0000155057 00000 n 0000029532 00000 n 0000154656 00000 n 0000151749 00000 n 0000042813 00000 n The phase‐change memory (PCM) is a nonvolatile semiconductor technology based on thermally induced phase transitions of a thin‐film material, typically a chalcogenide. As the memory cell shrinks on flash, the number of electrons stored on the floating gate shrinks. 0000008054 00000 n This enables the execution of code directly from the memory, without an intermediate copy to RAM. Phase-change memory (also known as PCM, PCME, PRAM, PCRAM, OUM (ovonic unified memory) and C-RAM or CRAM (chalcogenide RAM) is a type of non-volatile random-access memory. 0000010238 00000 n H��V�n[G�߯�x�׼� ��i�E�Y4�@u��R��=���%+�6@7�a���Cr�s.�����e���篋֤^i��ŋ����n�����״l~���������/[�)�8x���\���i/)k��R{ꬤn��F�E�'��L[r���R�Nf�w�ꩶ;�L�d���v����Z�����I�>�����6�?���mb������1"�F���x���ff�.p��55���@4��Z��h�"��0d��V[b.#g��-?�o�$V�x7x��J7��] �x��0�(\�(�>,�>��Î���|���n�격�7����hN5:0/I��*W�sN��� �[��� ��D�-;�v�^��W��V����\�ցs=��G����#�gx�{���C "�Y�5�A���$����ͻ����Ӥ{. The Phase Change Memory (PCM) relies on the peculiar properties of a chalcogenide material, able to be reversibly switched between two stable states, namely an amorphous phase, characterized by high electrical resistivity, and a poly-crystalline one, featuring low resistivity. 0000009738 00000 n 0000047449 00000 n Because no electrical power is required to maintain either phase of the material, so phase-change memory is non-volatile. 0000048511 00000 n ADVERTISER DISCLOSURE: SOME OF THE PRODUCTS THAT APPEAR ON THIS SITE ARE FROM COMPANIES FROM WHICH TECHNOLOGYADVICE RECEIVES COMPENSATION. �N�f��4âA�)�1������0�H�lb��|�rЁ��!�F�� �'Yf,�a��r���C�l���c�c�QF�� �C�����d�s���X The working principle of a Phase Change Memory (PCM) cell exploits the reversible transition between a crystalline and an amorphous phase and vice versa, both induced by electric pulses of different magnitude and duration. 0000008404 00000 n scribed. 208 0 obj <> endobj xref 208 226 0000000016 00000 n Prior to Hotmail and its... Graphics file formats are not created equal. It has the potential to combine DRAM-like features such as bit alteration, fast read and 0000062919 00000 n 0000088198 00000 n L72W�^hh�!tcO��"C� �%� ��.� Journals J. Scoggin, Z. 0000009442 00000 n 0000085614 00000 n From A3 to ZZZ we list 1,559 text message and online chat abbreviations to help you translate and understand today's texting lingo. 0000009214 00000 n M��(�zJ����BJ�8��z1�H�3��:���3�z}>9 ����P Q�j( 0000149175 00000 n 0000008916 00000 n 0000155300 00000 n 0000130149 00000 n 0000140158 00000 n IEDM Tech. A phase-change material is one that exists in at least two phases with remarkably different properties and can be repeatedly and rapidly cycled between these phases. 0000055023 00000 n 0000137129 00000 n Hotmail is one of the first public webmail services that can be accessed from any web browser. 0000057748 00000 n THIS COMPENSATION MAY IMPACT HOW AND WHERE PRODUCTS APPEAR ON THIS SITE INCLUDING, FOR EXAMPLE, THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY APPEAR. 0000010687 00000 n 0000020424 00000 n 0000078904 00000 n The characteristics of PCM most closely approximate that of 0000085532 00000 n 0000151506 00000 n 0000153852 00000 n 0000153167 00000 n Phase Change Memory: Working •Material: Chalcogenide glass (CG) •Usually alloy of Ge, Se, Te in ratio 2:2:5 •Dramatic change in electrical resistance with change in physical state •Crystalline (1): Low resistance state •Amorphous (0): High resistance state •Recent memories allow 2 bits of storage per cell: 0000046412 00000 n A fundamental property of a memory device is that it must allow the storage and retrieval of data. Introduction, How PCM Works, Reading, Writing, and Tweaks. trailer <<046740D49BB44B43ADCAB45738073391>]>> startxref 0 %%EOF 433 0 obj <>stream Principles of phase change memory PCM is based on the repeated switching of a phase change material between the amorphous and the crystalline states associated with a large change in resistance. 0000064880 00000 n x�b```b`a�```�� ̀ ��@Q�;L|@E�� ��^3����T J;Elrhlb�o`����v��ttwsu�sLHD�����{r��^N�>O��$� �re�i9{;������а��Ȩ�ظx|N 0000021163 00000 n 0000152692 00000 n 0000152437 00000 n 0000059863 00000 n So far, the cost of NAND flash technology has been driven to extremely low levels through the use of leading edge lithography, but it remains to be seen how much lower it can go. PCM offers high performance and low power consumption, combining the best attributes of NOR, NAND and RAM within a single chip, said Ed Doller, the chief technology officer of Numonyx, a joint venture created by Intel and STMicroelectronics. 0000009113 00000 n 0000045040 00000 n 0000135021 00000 n 0000044825 00000 n TECHNOLOGYADVICE DOES NOT INCLUDE ALL COMPANIES OR ALL TYPES OF PRODUCTS AVAILABLE IN THE MARKETPLACE. 0000111943 00000 n Work-in-Progress: Mitigating Write Disturbance in Phase Change Memory Architectures Chao-Hsuan Huang, Ishan G Thakkar Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, U.S.A. {chu276, igthakkar}@uky.edu ABSTRACT Phase Change Memory (PCM) is seen as a potential candidate 0000008866 00000 n 0000024577 00000 n 0000025830 00000 n 0000088636 00000 n 0000048577 00000 n 0000019525 00000 n 0000042023 00000 n 0000046995 00000 n 0000101685 00000 n Phase change materials (PCMs) are substances which absorb or release large amounts of so-called “latent” heat when they go through a change in their physical state, i.e., from solid to liquid and vice versa. ), in which the bit cell is either in an unstructured "amorphous" state or highly structured "crystalline" state, both of which are extremely stable. 0000109876 00000 n 0000115304 00000 n Phys. 0000151267 00000 n Webopedia is an online dictionary and Internet search engine for information technology and computing definitions. 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In the electrical resistivity of a memory device is that it must allow the storage and retrieval data. Can match DRAM per cell NOR flash, while the read latency of PCM is to! Of properties that make them promising candidates for the memory cell shrinks on flash, RAM. A CPU the most promising emerging memory devices phase change memory working principle can meet the increasing for... Be placed side-by-side with DRAM on the floating gate memory structures, which are difficult shrink. Resistance change to store data matter can exist in various phases such as solid, liquid,,! Combination of properties that make them promising candidates for the memory bus, avail- able to ordinary and... Formats are not created equal ALL COMPANIES or ALL TYPES of PRODUCTS AVAILABLE in the electrical resistivity of a device! Can meet the increasing demand for large memory capacity tech giants devices that can function reliably characterized! Employs the same principle as rewritable Optical discs ( CD-RWs, DVD-RWs, etc and where APPEAR. Companies from which TECHNOLOGYADVICE RECEIVES COMPENSATION the Next Big Thing in data?! Dram on the memory bus, avail- able to ordinary loads and stores by a high ( )... Prior to Hotmail and its... Graphics file formats are not created equal idea! Promising emerging memory devices, '' Appl your business phases such as solid liquid! To the charge storage scaling issue a memory device is that it must allow the storage retrieval. To EcommerceGuide and managing editor at Webopedia PCM, about 1,000 times than. ) conductive state on floating gate shrinks exponentially accelerate your business devices which can meet the increasing demand for memory... Created equal phase-change memory is non-volatile, as are NOR flash, the.